The Swedish government recently became the first nation to recommend a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet to its citizens. The United States government maintains its recommendation of what is essentially a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. How is it possible for the governments of two intelligent, developed nations to give two contrary dietary recommendations to its citizens? Either one side has blatantly ignored research contrary to its position, or both sides have irresponsibly misrepresented data which offers no definite conclusion. The resulting divergence in dietary guidelines goes beyond one government claiming that smoking does not produce adverse health effects; it is akin to a government claiming that smoking is actually beneficial.